Glossary of Terms


Ablation – a keyhole procedure to treat certain heart rhythm problems caused by short-circuits or extra heartbeats, targeting these short-circuits using targeted burns, radiofrequency, laser or freezing temperatures

ACE – Angiotensin-converting enzyme – medications to help relax the blood vessels 

ACS – Acute Coronary Syndrome – range of conditions to describe sudden restricted blood flow to the heart 

AF – Atrial Fibrillation

AHF – Acute heart failure – either new or worsening heart failure that may require hospitilisation 

Angiogram – investigation that uses a special dye (contrast) and X-ray imaging to look at the blood flow of the heart. 

ARB – Angiotensin-receptor blocker – medications to help relax the blood vessels

ARNI – Angiotensin receptor-neprilysin inhibitor – made up of two hypertensive medications to treat heart failure

AC – Arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy – genetic heart muscle condition that impacts the right and or left ventricle

ARVC – Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy – genetic heart muscle condition that impacts the right ventricle

ATTR – Transthyretin amyloidosis – build-up of faulty proteins that effects the heart


BiVAD – Biventricular assist device – mechanical heart pump for both the left and right ventricles

BMI – Body Mass Index – is a calculator to work out body mass

BNP – B-type natriuretic peptide – Natriuretic peptide tests measure levels of BNP in the blood

BP – Blood Pressure – is the force your heart uses to pump blood around your body

BPM – Beats Per Minute – the amount of beats your heart makes in 60 seconds 


CA – Cardiac amyloidosis – build-up of faulty proteins in the heart

CABG – Coronary artery bypass graft – is a surgical procedure that diverts blood around narrowed or clogged arteries in the heart

CAD – Coronary artery disease – is a narrowing or blocking of coronary heart arteries

CHF – Chronic heart failure – is chronic heart failure, when people live with the condition

CKD – Chronic kidney disease – is chronic kidney disease, when people live with the condition

CMR – Cardiac Magnetic Resonance – is a scan using strong magnetic fields

Congenital – is an existing malformation (of the heart) at birth. 

COPD – Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease – is a name for a group of Lung conditions

CRT – Cardiac resynchronization therapy – is therapy that sends small electrical impulses to the heart to synchronize the left and right ventricles 

CRT-D – Cardiac resynchronization therapy with defibrillator – is therapy that sends small electrical impulses to the heart to synchronize the left and right ventricles and includes an ICD (Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator)

CRT-P – Cardiac resynchronization therapy with pacing – is therapy that sends small electrical impulses to the heart to synchronize the left and right ventricles

CV – Cardiovascular –  a term used for a disease effecting the blood vessels or the heart


DCM – Dilated cardiomyopathy – the muscle walls of the heart become stretched and saggy, which means the heart can’t pump blood around the body properly 

DOAC – Direct-acting oral anticoagulant – group of medicines that either treats or prevents blood clots


ECG – Electrocardiogram, An ECG measures the electrical activity of the heart

ECHO – Echocardiogram, A scan to observe the function of the heart and its valves

Ejection Fraction(expressed as a %) is a measurement of the blood pumped out of the left ventricle with each contraction

eGFR – Estimated glomerular filtration rate, shows how well the kidneys are functioning

ElectrolytesSalts or minerals in the blood, such as sodium and potassium. A blood test abnormality in electrolytes can detect a fluid/acid-base imbalance or problems with kidney function


FerritinA blood protein that contains iron (a ferritin test helps to show how much iron your body stores)


GuidelinesGuidelines means documented evidence-based guidance on how to treat and care for patients aimed at healthcare professionals promoting good medical practice


HCM – Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy – is when the walls of the heart chambers thicken. This means the heart may not fill properly with blood and the walls of the chambers don’t relax properly, which may restrict blood flow

HF – Heart failure – is a syndrome and means that your heart is not pumping blood around the body properly

HFmrEF – Heart failure with mildly reduced ejection fraction – defined as an EF measurement of between 40 and 49%

HFpEF – Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction – defined as an EF measurement of 50% and above

HFrEF – Heart failure with reduced ejection fraction – defined as an EF measurement of less than 40%


IdiopathicIdiopathic is where the Heart Failure has no identifiable cause

Iron Deficiency Anaemiais caused by a lack of iron in the body

IV – Intravenous – means with a vein, so medications given to you via your veins

ICCU – Intensive coronary care unit – specialist cardiac high dependency unit

ICD – Implantable cardioverter-defibrillator – is a small device that is implanted and can detect and treat dangerous heart rhythms 

ICU – Intensive Care Unit – high dependency unit

IHD – Ischaemic heart disease – term used when your hearts arteries are blocked or clogged with fatty deposits

INR – International normalized ratio – is a test taken by people taking Warfarin to check the clotting time of their blood


LBBB – Left bundle branch block – is a problem with the electrical signals that make the heart beat

LFT – Liver function test – test the function of the liver

LV – Left Ventricle – a chamber in the heart that fills from the left atrium and pumps blood around the body 

LVAD – Left ventricular assist device – a mechanical pump replacing the left ventricle

LVEF – Left ventricular ejection fraction – ejection fraction measurement of the left ventricle

LVH – Left ventricular hypertrophy – when the left ventricles muscle thickens and may not pump properly

LVNC – Left ventricular non-compaction cardiomyopathy – is when the left ventricles walls may appear spongy and therefore may not pump blood properly


MI – Myocardial infarction – is a heart attack when coronary arteries become blocked suddenly 

MR – Mitral regurgitation – this is when the mitral valve doesn’t close properly and blood leaks across the valve

MRA – Mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist – blocks a hormone produced naturally by adrenal glands that came make heart failure worse

MV – Mitral Valve – a valve of the heart between the left atrium and the left ventricle preventing blood from flowing the wrong way

MDT – Multi Disciplinary Team – team of healthcare professionals who have different skills and job roles

MRI – Magnetic Resonance Imaging – scan that produces detailed 3D images


NP – Natriuretic peptide, are peptide hormones made by the heart, brain and other organs

NICENational Institute for Health and Care Excellence

NSAID – Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug

NSTEMI – mainly results from severe narrowing of the cardiac arteries starving the heart of the oxygen it needs

NT-proBNP – Natriuretic Peptide Blood Test – NT-proBNP blood test can be taken to rule out heart failure. It measures natriuretic peptide levels

NYHA – New York Heart Association – is a scale to describe the functional capacity of someone with a diagnosis of heart failure


Palliative Care – support, treatments, and care for people living with a life-limiting condition. This also includes support for their family and friends

PCI – Percutaneous coronary intervention – is a procedure to widen or blocked or narrowed arteries

PPCM – Peripartum cardiomyopathy – is pregnancy induced cardiomyopathy

Prevalent – means how commonplace Heart Failure is in society. It is the number of people diagnosed with Heart Failure divided by the total population

Prognosis-  the likely course of a medical condition

PvO2 – A measurement of peak exercise oxygen consumption


QOL – Quality of life


RAAS – Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system – is a hormone system that regulates blood pressure and fluid balance

RASi – Renin-angiotensin system inhibitor – a type of medication that mainly treats hypertension and or heart failure

RV – Right ventricle – the ventricle that pumps blood to the lungs

RVAD – Right ventricular assist device – mechanical pump that replaces the right ventricle


SBP – Systolic blood pressure is the top number that indicates the force at which your heart pumps blood around your body

SGLT2i – Sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor, lowers blood glucose levels

S-ICD – Subcutaneous implantable cardioverter-defibrillator, similar to an ICD but does not have leads that go into the heart

SMCScottish Medicines Consortium 

SMR – Secondary mitral regurgitation, is caused by a consequence of left ventricle dysfunction

SR – Sinus rhythm, normal heart rhythm 

STEMI – ST-elevation myocardial infarction – a heart attack with blocked coronary arteries

SyndromeA syndrome is a set of medical signs and symptoms and together they are associated with a certain condition, for example Heart Failure


TAVI – Transcatheter aortic valve implantation

ThyroidA gland in the neck that produces hormones. Hormones are the body’s chemicals that carry messages

TR – Tricuspid regurgitation – when the Tricuspid flaps don’t close properly 

TSAT – Transferrin saturation – is a measurement to test how much serum iron is bound in an individual


Urea  – Urea is a chemical and the main constituent of human urine


VAD – Ventricular assist device – mechanical ventricular heart pump

VO – Oxygen consumption – measures oxygen uptake whilst exercising 


X-Ray – A scan that produces images of the inside of the body

Secret sauce

Dictionary – “A special quality or feature regarded as the chief factor in the success of something or someone.”

So, what’s your “Secret Sauce?” What makes you tick?

At Pumping Marvellous, we know it takes some real inner drive to live well with heart failure. Pumping Marvellous are Secret Sauce catalysts; we draw out people’s inner Secret Sauce, people’s superpowers and enable other people to learn from other people’s experiences.

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